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SPQR: The Senate and People of Rome
2012.01.19 11:11 SPQR: The Senate and People of Rome
This subreddit will chronicle the history of Rome, from the founding, to the Kingdom of Rome, to the Roman Republic, to the Roman Empire, to the fall.
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For everything to do with the Roman Kingdom, Republic and the Empire up until the fall of the Western Empire. Feel free to post about Roman architecture, military history, art, archaeological finds and anything else that has links to ancient Rome.
2012.11.04 21:55 kowalsky9999 Roman History
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2023.03.25 17:23 FitInvestigator5945 SATIRE RESEARCH
Johnson, Samuel, London, an adaptation of Juvenal, Third Satire.
Kubrick, Stanley, Dr. Strangelove.
Mencken, HL, Libido for the Ugly.
Morris, Chris, Brass Eye.
———, The Day Today.
Orwell, George, Nineteen Eighty-Four.
Orwell, George, Animal Farm.
Palahniuk, Chuck, Fight Club.
Swift, Jonathan, A Modest Proposal.
Zamyatin, Yevgeny, We.
See Menippean satire.
Satire versus teasing
In the history of theatre there has always been a conflict between engagement and disengagement on politics and relevant issue, between satire and grotesque on one side, and jest with teasing on the other. Max Eastman defined the spectrum of satire in terms of "degrees of biting", as ranging from satire proper at the hot-end, and "kidding" at the violet-end; Eastman adopted the term kidding to denote what is just satirical in form, but is not really firing at the target. Nobel laureate satirical playwright Dario Fo pointed out the difference between satire and teasing (sfottò). Teasing is the reactionary side of the comic; it limits itself to a shallow parody of physical appearance. The side-effect of teasing is that it humanizes and draws sympathy for the powerful individual towards which it is directed. Satire instead uses the comic to go against power and its oppressions, has a subversive character, and a moral dimension which draws judgement against its targets. Fo formulated an operational criterion to tell real satire from sfottò, saying that real satire arouses an outraged and violent reaction, and that the more they try to stop you, the better is the job you are doing. Fo contends that, historically, people in positions of power have welcomed and encouraged good-humoured buffoonery, while modern day people in positions of power have tried to censor, ostracize and repress satire.
Teasing (sfottò) is an ancient form of simple buffoonery, a form of comedy without satire's subversive edge. Teasing includes light and affectionate parody, good-humoured mockery, simple one-dimensional poking fun, and benign spoofs. Teasing typically consists of an impersonation of someone monkeying around with his exterior attributes, tics, physical blemishes, voice and mannerisms, quirks, way of dressing and walking, and/or the phrases he typically repeats. By contrast, teasing never touches on the core issue, never makes a serious criticism judging the target with irony; it never harms the target's conduct, ideology and position of power; it never undermines the perception of his morality and cultural dimension. Sfottò directed towards a powerful individual makes him appear more human and draws sympathy towards him. Hermann Göring propagated jests and jokes against himself, with the aim of humanizing his image.
Classifications by topics
Types of satire can also be classified according to the topics it deals with. From the earliest times, at least since the plays of Aristophanes, the primary topics of literary satire have been politics, religion and sex. This is partly because these are the most pressing problems that affect anybody living in a society, and partly because these topics are usually taboo. Among these, politics in the broader sense is considered the pre-eminent topic of satire. Satire which targets the clergy is a type of political satire, while religious satire is that which targets religious beliefs. Satire on sex may overlap with blue comedy, off-color humor and dick jokes.
Scatology has a long literary association with satire, as it is a classical mode of the grotesque, the grotesque body and the satiric grotesque. Shit plays a fundamental role in satire because it symbolizes death, the turd being "the ultimate dead object". The satirical comparison of individuals or institutions with human excrement, exposes their "inherent inertness, corruption and dead-likeness". The ritual clowns of clown societies, like among the Pueblo Indians, have ceremonies with filth-eating. In other cultures, sin-eating is an apotropaic rite in which the sin-eater (also called filth-eater), by ingesting the food provided, takes "upon himself the sins of the departed". Satire about death overlaps with black humor and gallows humor.
Another classification by topics is the distinction between political satire, religious satire and satire of manners. Political satire is sometimes called topical satire, satire of manners is sometimes called satire of everyday life, and religious satire is sometimes called philosophical satire. Comedy of manners, sometimes also called satire of manners, criticizes mode of life of common people; political satire aims at behavior, manners of politicians, and vices of political systems. Historically, comedy of manners, which first appeared in British theater in 1620, has uncritically accepted the social code of the upper classes. Comedy in general accepts the rules of the social game, while satire subverts them.
Another analysis of satire is the spectrum of his possible tones: wit, ridicule, irony, sarcasm, cynicism, the sardonic and invective.
The type of humour that deals with creating laughter at the expense of the person telling the joke is called reflexive humour.Reflexive humour can take place at dual levels of directing humour at self or at the larger community the self identifies with. The audience's understanding of the context of reflexive humour is important for its receptivity and success . Satire is found not only in written literary forms. In preliterate cultures it manifests itself in ritual and folk forms, as well as in trickster tales and oral poetry.
It appears also in graphic arts, music, sculpture, dance, cartoon strips, and graffiti. Examples are Dada sculptures, Pop Art works, music of Gilbert and Sullivan and Erik Satie, punk and rock music. In modern media culture, stand-up comedy is an enclave in which satire can be introduced into mass media, challenging mainstream discourse. Comedy roasts, mock festivals, and stand-up comedians in nightclubs and concerts are the modern forms of ancient satiric rituals.
The satirical papyrus at the British Museum
Satirical ostracon showing a cat guarding geese, c.1120 BC, Egypt.
Figured ostracon showing a cat waiting on a mouse, Egypt
One of the earliest examples of what we might call satire, The Satire of the Trades, is in Egyptian writing from the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC. The text's apparent readers are students, tired of studying. It argues that their lot as scribes is not only useful, but far superior to that of the ordinary man. Scholars such as Helck think that the context was meant to be serious.
The Papyrus Anastasi I (late 2nd millennium BC) contains a satirical letter which first praises the virtues of its recipient, but then mocks the reader's meagre knowledge and achievements.
The Greeks had no word for what later would be called "satire", although the terms cynicism and parody were used. Modern critics call the Greek playwright Aristophanes one of the best known early satirists: his plays are known for their critical political and societal commentary, particularly for the political satire by which he criticized the powerful Cleon (as in The Knights). He is also notable for the persecution he underwent. Aristophanes' plays turned upon images of filth and disease. His bawdy style was adopted by Greek dramatist-comedian Menander. His early play Drunkenness contains an attack on the politician Callimedon.
The oldest form of satire still in use is the Menippean satire by Menippus of Gadara. His own writings are lost. Examples from his admirers and imitators mix seriousness and mockery in dialogues and present parodies before a background of diatribe. As in the case of Aristophanes plays, menippean satire turned upon images of filth and disease.
The first Roman to discuss satire critically was Quintilian, who invented the term to describe the writings of Gaius Lucilius. The two most prominent and influential ancient Roman satirists are Horace and Juvenal, who wrote during the early days of the Roman Empire. Other important satirists in ancient Latin are Gaius Lucilius and Persius. Satire in their work is much wider than in the modern sense of the word, including fantastic and highly coloured humorous writing with little or no real mocking intent. When Horace criticized Augustus, he used veiled ironic terms. In contrast, Pliny reports that the 6th-century-BC poet Hipponax wrote satirae that were so cruel that the offended hanged themselves.
In the 2nd century AD, Lucian wrote True History, a book satirizing the clearly unrealistic travelogues/adventures written by Ctesias, Iambulus, and Homer. He states that he was surprised they expected people to believe their lies, and stating that he, like them, has no actual knowledge or experience, but shall now tell lies as if he did. He goes on to describe a far more obviously extreme and unrealistic tale, involving interplanetary exploration, war among alien life forms, and life inside a 200 mile long whale back in the terrestrial ocean, all intended to make obvious the fallacies of books like Indica and The Odyssey.
Medieval Islamic world
Main articles: Arabic satire and Persian satire
Medieval Arabic poetry included the satiric genre hija. Satire was introduced into Arabic prose literature by the author Al-Jahiz in the 9th century. While dealing with serious topics in what are now known as anthropology, sociology and psychology, he introduced a satirical approach, "based on the premise that, however serious the subject under review, it could be made more interesting and thus achieve greater effect, if only one leavened the lump of solemnity by the insertion of a few amusing anecdotes or by the throwing out of some witty or paradoxical observations. He was well aware that, in treating of new themes in his prose works, he would have to employ a vocabulary of a nature more familiar in hija, satirical poetry." For example, in one of his zoological works, he satirized the preference for longer human penis size, writing: "If the length of the penis were a sign of honor, then the mule would belong to the (honorable tribe of) Quraysh". Another satirical story based on this preference was an Arabian Nights tale called "Ali with the Large Member".
In the 10th century, the writer Tha'alibi recorded satirical poetry written by the Arabic poets As-Salami and Abu Dulaf, with As-Salami praising Abu Dulaf's wide breadth of knowledge and then mocking his ability in all these subjects, and with Abu Dulaf responding back and satirizing As-Salami in return. An example of Arabic political satire included another 10th-century poet Jarir satirizing Farazdaq as "a transgressor of the Sharia" and later Arabic poets in turn using the term "Farazdaq-like" as a form of political satire.
The terms "comedy" and "satire" became synonymous after Aristotle's Poetics was translated into Arabic in the medieval Islamic world, where it was elaborated upon by Islamic philosophers and writers, such as Abu Bischr, his pupil Al-Farabi, Avicenna, and Averroes. Due to cultural differences, they disassociated comedy from Greek dramatic representation and instead identified it with Arabic poetic themes and forms, such as hija (satirical poetry). They viewed comedy as simply the "art of reprehension", and made no reference to light and cheerful events, or troubled beginnings and happy endings, associated with classical Greek comedy. After the Latin translations of the 12th century, the term "comedy" thus gained a new semantic meaning in Medieval literature.
Ubayd Zakani introduced satire in Persian literature during the 14th century. His work is noted for its satire and obscene verses, often political or bawdy, and often cited in debates involving homosexual practices. He wrote the Resaleh-ye Delgosha, as well as Akhlaq al-Ashraf ("Ethics of the Aristocracy") and the famous humorous fable Masnavi Mush-O-Gorbeh (Mouse and Cat), which was a political satire. His non-satirical serious classical verses have also been regarded as very well written, in league with the other great works of Persian literature. Between 1905 and 1911, Bibi Khatoon Astarabadi and other Iranian writers wrote notable satires.
In the Early Middle Ages, examples of satire were the songs by Goliards or vagants now best known as an anthology called Carmina Burana and made famous as texts of a composition by the 20th-century composer Carl Orff. Satirical poetry is believed to have been popular, although little has survived. With the advent of the High Middle Ages and the birth of modern vernacular literature in the 12th century, it began to be used again, most notably by Chaucer. The disrespectful manner was considered "unchristian" and ignored, except for the moral satire, which mocked misbehaviour in Christian terms. Examples are Livre des Manières by Étienne de Fougères [fr] (~1178), and some of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. Sometimes epic poetry (epos) was mocked, and even feudal society, but there was hardly a general interest in the genre.
Early modern western satire
Pieter Bruegel's 1568 satirical painting The Blind Leading the Blind.
Direct social commentary via satire returned with a vengeance in the 16th century, when farcical texts such as the works of François Rabelais tackled more serious issues (and incurred the wrath of the crown as a result).
Two major satirists of Europe in the Renaissance were Giovanni Boccaccio and François Rabelais. Other examples of Renaissance satire include Till Eulenspiegel, Reynard the Fox, Sebastian Brant's Narrenschiff (1494), Erasmus's Moriae Encomium (1509), Thomas More's Utopia (1516), and Carajicomedia (1519).
The Elizabethan (i.e. 16th-century English) writers thought of satire as related to the notoriously rude, coarse and sharp satyr play. Elizabethan "satire" (typically in pamphlet form) therefore contains more straightforward abuse than subtle irony. The French Huguenot Isaac Casaubon pointed out in 1605 that satire in the Roman fashion was something altogether more civilised. Casaubon discovered and published Quintilian's writing and presented the original meaning of the term (satira, not satyr), and the sense of wittiness (reflecting the "dishfull of fruits") became more important again. Seventeenth-century English satire once again aimed at the "amendment of vices" (Dryden).
In the 1590s a new wave of verse satire broke with the publication of Hall's Virgidemiarum, six books of verse satires targeting everything from literary fads to corrupt noblemen. Although Donne had already circulated satires in manuscript, Hall's was the first real attempt in English at verse satire on the Juvenalian model.[page needed] The success of his work combined with a national mood of disillusion in the last years of Elizabeth's reign triggered an avalanche of satire—much of it less conscious of classical models than Hall's — until the fashion was brought to an abrupt stop by censorship.[note 1]
Ancient and modern India
Satire (Kataksh or Vyang) has played a prominent role in Indian and Hindi literature, and is counted as one of the "ras" of literature in ancient books. With the commencement of printing of books in local language in the nineteenth century and especially after India's freedom, this grew. Many of the works of Tulsi Das, Kabir, Munshi Premchand, village ministrels, Hari katha singers, poets, Dalit singers and current day stand up Indian comedians incorporate satire, usually ridiculing authoritarians, fundamentalists and incompetent people in power. In India, it has usually been used as a means of expression and an outlet for common people to express their anger against authoritarian entities. A popular custom in Northern India of "Bura na mano Holi hai" continues, in which comedians on the stage roast local people of importance (who are usually brought in as special guests).
Age of Enlightenment
'A Welch wedding' Satirical Cartoon c.1780
The Age of Enlightenment, an intellectual movement in the 17th and 18th centuries advocating rationality, produced a great revival of satire in Britain. This was fuelled by the rise of partisan politics, with the formalisation of the Tory and Whig parties—and also, in 1714, by the formation of the Scriblerus Club, which included Alexander Pope, Jonathan Swift, John Gay, John Arbuthnot, Robert Harley, Thomas Parnell, and Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke. This club included several of the notable satirists of early-18th-century Britain. They focused their attention on Martinus Scriblerus, "an invented learned fool... whose work they attributed all that was tedious, narrow-minded, and pedantic in contemporary scholarship". In their hands astute and biting satire of institutions and individuals became a popular weapon. The turn to the 18th century was characterized by a switch from Horatian, soft, pseudo-satire, to biting "juvenal" satire.
Jonathan Swift was one of the greatest of Anglo-Irish satirists, and one of the first to practise modern journalistic satire. For instance, In his A Modest Proposal Swift suggests that Irish peasants be encouraged to sell their own children as food for the rich, as a solution to the "problem" of poverty. His purpose is of course to attack indifference to the plight of the desperately poor. In his book Gulliver's Travels he writes about the flaws in human society in general and English society in particular. John Dryden wrote an influential essay entitled "A Discourse Concerning the Original and Progress of Satire" that helped fix the definition of satire in the literary world. His satirical Mac Flecknoe was written in response to a rivalry with Thomas Shadwell and eventually inspired Alexander Pope to write his satirical The Rape of the Lock. Other satirical works by Pope include the Epistle to Dr Arbuthnot.
Alexander Pope (b. May 21, 1688) was a satirist known for his Horatian satirist style and translation of the Iliad. Famous throughout and after the long 18th century, Pope died in 1744. Pope, in his The Rape of the Lock, is delicately chiding society in a sly but polished voice by holding up a mirror to the follies and vanities of the upper class. Pope does not actively attack the self-important pomp of the British aristocracy, but rather presents it in such a way that gives the reader a new perspective from which to easily view the actions in the story as foolish and ridiculous. A mockery of the upper class, more delicate and lyrical than brutal, Pope nonetheless is able to effectively illuminate the moral degradation of society to the public. The Rape of the Lock assimilates the masterful qualities of a heroic epic, such as the Iliad, which Pope was translating at the time of writing The Rape of the Lock. However, Pope applied these qualities satirically to a seemingly petty egotistical elitist quarrel to prove his point wryly.
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2023.03.25 17:22 ShineNo9932 What kind of relationship could it be?
2023.03.25 17:22 michael211996 Struggling
I was dating my girlfriend for 5 months and she turned into one of my best friends but I couldn’t seem to fall in love fully even though she was deeply in love with me. There would be stretches in time when I could see a future with her, then randomly those thoughts would not seem possible. I ended up ending things with her to make it fair to the both of us so I didn’t waste her time and get to the point where I would be leading her on. I feel so guilty but I did what had to be done & I can’t stop feeling like I hurt someone I truly care for so much. Has anyone gone through a similar experience?
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2023.03.25 17:21 FitInvestigator5945 SATIRE RESEARCH
1599 book ban
In 1599, the Archbishop of Canterbury John Whitgift and the Bishop of London Richard Bancroft, whose offices had the function of licensing books for publication in England, issued a decree banning verse satire. The decree, now known as the Bishops' Ban of 1599, ordered the burning of certain volumes of satire by John Marston, Thomas Middleton, Joseph Hall, and others; it also required histories and plays to be specially approved by a member of the Queen's Privy Council, and it prohibited the future printing of satire in verse.
The motives for the ban are obscure, particularly since some of the books banned had been licensed by the same authorities less than a year earlier. Various scholars have argued that the target was obscenity, libel, or sedition. It seems likely that lingering anxiety about the Martin Marprelate controversy, in which the bishops themselves had employed satirists, played a role; both Thomas Nashe and Gabriel Harvey, two of the key figures in that controversy, suffered a complete ban on all their works. In the event, though, the ban was little enforced, even by the licensing authority itself.
In 2005, the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy caused global protests by offended Muslims and violent attacks with many fatalities in the Near East. It was not the first case of Muslim protests against criticism in the form of satire, but the Western world was surprised by the hostility of the reaction: Any country's flag in which a newspaper chose to publish the parodies was being burnt in a Near East country, then embassies were attacked, killing 139 people in mainly four countries; politicians throughout Europe agreed that satire was an aspect of the freedom of speech, and therefore to be a protected means of dialogue. Iran threatened to start an International Holocaust Cartoon Competition, which was immediately responded to by Jews with an Israeli Anti-Semitic Cartoons Contest.
In 2006 British comedian Sacha Baron Cohen released Borat: Cultural Learnings of America for Make Benefit Glorious Nation of Kazakhstan, a "mockumentary" that satirized everyone, from high society to frat boys. The film was criticized by many. Although Baron Cohen is Jewish, some complained that it was antisemitic, and the government of Kazakhstan boycotted the film. The film itself had been a reaction to a longer quarrel between the government and the comedian.
In 2008, popular South African cartoonist and satirist Jonathan Shapiro (who is published under the pen name Zapiro) came under fire for depicting then-president of the ANC Jacob Zuma in the act of undressing in preparation for the implied rape of 'Lady Justice' which is held down by Zuma loyalists. The cartoon was drawn in response to Zuma's efforts to duck corruption charges, and the controversy was heightened by the fact that Zuma was himself acquitted of rape in May 2006. In February 2009, the South African Broadcasting Corporation, viewed by some opposition parties as the mouthpiece of the governing ANC, shelved a satirical TV show created by Shapiro, and in May 2009 the broadcaster pulled a documentary about political satire (featuring Shapiro among others) for the second time, hours before scheduled broadcast. Apartheid South Africa also had a long history of censorship.
On December 29, 2009, Samsung sued Mike Breen, and the Korea Times for $1 million, claiming criminal defamation over a satirical column published on Christmas Day, 2009.
On April 29, 2015, the UK Independence Party (UKIP) requested Kent Police investigate the BBC, claiming that comments made about Party leader Nigel Farage by a panelist on the comedy show Have I Got News For You might hinder his chances of success in the general election (which would take place a week later), and claimed the BBC breached the Representation of the People Act. Kent Police rebuffed the request to open an investigation, and the BBC released a statement, "Britain has a proud tradition of satire, and everyone knows that the contributors on Have I Got News for You regularly make jokes at the expense of politicians of all parties."
Satire is occasionally prophetic: the jokes precede actual events. Among the eminent examples are:
The 1784 presaging of modern daylight saving time, later actually proposed in 1907. While an American envoy to France, Benjamin Franklin anonymously published a letter in 1784 suggesting that Parisians economise on candles by arising earlier to use morning sunlight.
In the 1920s, an English cartoonist imagined a laughable thing for the time: a hotel for cars. He drew a multi-story car park.
The second episode of Monty Python's Flying Circus, which debuted in 1969, featured a sketch entitled "The Mouse Problem" (meant to satirize contemporary media exposés on homosexuality), which depicted a cultural phenomenon similar to some aspects of the modern furry fandom (which did not become widespread until the 1980s, over a decade after the sketch was first aired).
The comedy film Americathon, released in 1979 and set in the United States of 1998, predicted a number of trends and events that would eventually unfold in the near future, including an American debt crisis, Chinese capitalism, the fall of the Soviet Union, terrorism aimed at the civilian population, a presidential sex scandal, and the popularity of reality shows.
In January 2001, a satirical news article in The Onion, entitled "Our Long National Nightmare of Peace and Prosperity Is Finally Over" had newly elected President George Bush vowing to "develop new and expensive weapons technologies" and to "engage in at least one Gulf War-level armed conflict in the next four years". Furthermore, he would "bring back economic stagnation by implementing substantial tax cuts, which would lead to a recession". This prophesied the Iraq War, the Bush tax cuts, and the Great Recession.
In 1975, the first episode of Saturday Night Live included an ad for a triple blade razor called the Triple-Trac; in 2001, Gillette introduced the Mach3. In 2004, The Onion satirized Schick and Gillette's marketing of ever-increasingly multi-blade razors with a mock article proclaiming Gillette will now introduce a five-blade razor. In 2006, Gillette released the Gillette Fusion, a five-blade razor.
After the Iran nuclear deal in 2015, The Onion ran an article with the headline "U.S. Soothes Upset Netanyahu With Shipment Of Ballistic Missiles". Sure enough, reports broke the next day of the Obama administration offering military upgrades to Israel in the wake of the deal.
In July 2016, The Simpsons released the most recent in a string of satirical references to a potential Donald Trump presidency (although the first was made back in a 2000 episode.) Other media sources, including the popular film Back to the Future Part II have also made similar satirical references.
In June 2019, Punocracy, Nigeria's foremost satire platform organised a nationwide writing competition for youth in the country with the objective to make satire a widely accepted and understood tool of socio-political commentary. Some of the entries addressed issues like gender violence, political corruption, religious hypocrisy, internet fraud, educational decay and so on. The group also declared November 9 as World Satire Day with the idea of "trying to fight against the ills in the society not by ammunition but by humour, sarcasm etcetera".
Freedom of the press
List of satirists and satires
The Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of London, the censors of the press, issued Orders to the Stationers' Company on June 1 and 4, 1599, prohibiting the further printing of satires—the so-called 'Bishop's Ban'.[page needed]
Frye, Northrup (1957). Anatomy of Criticism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. p. 222. ISBN 0-691-06004-5.
Claridge, Claudia (2010) Hyperbole in English: A Corpus-based Study of Exaggeration p.257
Kharpertian, Theodore D (1990), "Thomas Pynchon and Postmodern American Satire", in Kharpertian (ed.), A hand to turn the time: the Menippean satires of Thomas Pynchon, pp. 25–7, ISBN 9780838633618
Branham 1997, p. xxiv.
Ullman, BL (1913), "Satura and Satire", Classical Philology, 8 (2): 172–194, doi:10.1086/359771, JSTOR 262450, The Renaissance confusion of the two origins encouraged a satire more aggressive than that of its Roman forebearers
Antonia Szabari (2009) Less Rightly Said: Scandals and Readers in Sixteenth-Century France p.2
"Forecast". Galaxy Science Fiction. June 1968. p. 113.
Corum 2002, p. 175.
Rosenberg, Harold (1960), "Community, Values, Comedy", Commentary, The American Jewish Committee, 30: 155, the oldest form of social study is comedy... If the comedian, from Aristophanes to Joyce, does not solve sociology's problem of "the participant observer", he does demonstrate his objectivity by capturing behavior in its most intimate aspects yet in its widest typicality. Comic irony sets whole cultures side by side in a multiple exposure (e.g., Don Quixote, Ulysses), causing valuation to spring out of the recital of facts alone, in contrast to the hidden editorializing of tongue-in-cheek ideologists.
Deloria, Vine (1969), "Indian humor", Custer Died For Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto, p. 146, Irony and satire provide much keener insights into a group's collective psyche and values than do years of [conventional] research as quoted in Ryan, Allan J (1999), The trickster shift: humour and irony in contemporary native art, p. 9, ISBN 9780774807043
Nash, Roderick Frazier (1970), "21. The New Humor", The Call of the Wild: 1900–1916, p. 203, Humor is one of the best indicators of popular thought. To ask what strikes a period as funny is to probe its deepest values and tastes.
Babcock, Barbara A. (1984), "Arrange Me Into Disorder: Fragments and Reflections on Ritual Clowning", in MacAloon (ed.), Rite, Drama, Festival, Spectacle. Also collected as Babcock, Barbara A Grimes (1996), Ronald, L (ed.), Readings in ritual studies, p. 5, Harold Rosenberg has asserted that sociology needs to bring comedy into the foreground, including "an awareness of the comedy of sociology with its disguises", and, like Burke and Duncan, he has argued that comedy provides "the radical effect of self- knowledge which the anthropological bias excludes.
Coppola, Jo (1958), "An Angry Young Magazine ...", The Realist (1), Good comedy is social criticism—although you might find that hard to believe if all you ever saw were some of the so-called clowns of videoland.... Comedy is dying today because criticism is on its deathbed... because telecasters, frightened by the threats and pressure of sponsors, blacklists and viewers, helped introduce conformity to this age... In such a climate, comedy cannot flourish. For comedy is, after all, a look at ourselves, not as we pretend to be when we look in the mirror of our imagination, but as we really are. Look at the comedy of any age and you will know volumes about that period and its people which neither historian nor anthropologist can tell you.
Coppola, Jo (December 12, 1958). Comedy on Television. Commonweal. p. 288.
Willi, Andreas (2003), The Languages of Aristophanes: Aspects of Linguistic Variation in Classical Attic Greek, Oxford University Press, pp. 1–2, ISBN 9780199262649
Ehrenberg, Victor (1962), The people of Aristophanes: a sociology of old Attic comedy, p. 39
Bevere, Antonio and Cerri, Augusto (2006) Il Diritto di informazione e i diritti della persona pp.265–6 quotation:
nella storia della nostra cultura, la satira ha realizzato il bisogno popolare di irridere e dissacrare il gotha politico ed economico, le cui reazioni punitive non sono certo state condizionate da critiche estetiche, ma dalla tolleranza o intolleranza caratterizzanti in quel momento storico la società e i suoi governanti. (...) la reale esistenza della satira in una società deriva, (...) dal margine di tolleranza espresso dai poteri punitivi dello Stato.
Amy Wiese Forbes (2010) The Satiric Decade: Satire and the Rise of Republicanism in France, 1830–1840 p.xv, quotation:
a critical public discourse (...) Satire rose the daunting question of what role public opinion would play in government. (...) satirists criticized government activities, exposed ambiguities, and forced administrators to clarify or establish policies. Not surprisingly, heated public controversy surrounded satiric commentary, resulting in an outright ban on political satire in 1835 (...) Government officials cracked down on their humorous public criticism that challenged state authority through both its form and content. Satire had been a political resource in France for a long time, but the anxious political context of the July Monarchy had unlocked its political power. Satire also taught lessons in democracy. It fit into the July Monarchy's tense political context as a voice in favor of public political debate. Satiric expression took place in the public sphere and spoke from a position of public opinion-that is, from a position of the nation’s expressing a political voice and making claims on its government representatives and leadership. Beyond mere entertainment, satire's humor appealed to and exercised public opinion, drawing audiences into new practices of representative government.
Knight, Charles A. (2004) Literature of Satire p.254
Test (1991) p.9 quotation:
A surprising variety of societies have allowed certain persons the freedom to mock other individuals and social institutions in rituals. From the earliest times the same freedom has been claimed by and granted to social groups at certain times of the year, as can be seen in such festivals as the Saturnalia, the Feast of Fools, Carnival, and similar folk festivals in India, nineteenth-century Newfoundland, and the ancient Mediterranean world.
Test (1991) pp.8–9
Cazeneuve (1957) p.244-5 quotation:
Ils constituent donc pour la tribu un moyen de donner une satisfaction symbolique aux tendances anti-sociales. Les Zunis, précisément parce qu'ils sont un peuple apollinien [où la règle prédomine], avaient besoin de cette soupape de sûreté. Les Koyemshis représentent ce que M. Caillois nomme le « Sacré de transgression ».
Durand (1984) p.106 quotation:
Déjà Cazeneuve (2) [Les dieux dansent à Cibola] avait mis auparavant en relief, dans la Société « apollinienne » des Zuñi, l'institution et le symbolisme saturnal des clowns Koyemshis, véritable soupape de sûreté « dionysienne ».
Yatsko, V, Russian folk funny stories
Corum (2002) p.163
David Worcester (1968) The Art of Satire p.16
Müller, Rolf Arnold (1973). Komik und Satire (in German). Zürich: Juris-Verlag. p. 92. ISBN 978-3-260-03570-8.
"What Is Horatian Satire?". wiseGEEK.
"Satire Terms". nku.edu
Sharma, Raja (2011). "Comedy" in New Light-Literary Studies.
Patricia, Green. "The Golden Age of Satire: Alexander Pope and Jonathan Swift" (PDF).
"What Is Juvenalian Satire?". wiseGEEK.
"Satire Examples and Definition". Literary Devices.
"Satire in Literature: Definition, Types & Examples". Education Portal.
Fo (1990) p.9 quotation:
Nella storia del teatro si ritrova sempre questo conflitto in cui si scontrano impegno e disimpegno ... grottesco, satirico e lazzo con sfottò. E spesso vince lo sfotto. tanto amato dal potere. Quando si dice che il potere ama la satira
Eastman, Max (1936), "IV. Degrees of Biting", Enjoyment of Laughter, pp. 236–43
Fo, Dario; Lorch, Jennifer (1997), Dario Fo, p. 128, ISBN 9780719038488, In other writings Fo makes an important distinction between sfottò and satire.
Fo (1990) pp.2–3
... Una caricatura che, è ovvio, risulta del tutto bonaria, del tutto epidermica, che indica, come dicevo prima, soltanto la parte più esteriore del loro carattere, i tic la cui messa in risalto non lede assolutamente l'operato, l'ideologia, la morale e la dimensione culturale di questi personaggi. ... ricordando che i politici provano un enorme piacere nel sentirsi presi in giro; è quasi un premio che si elargisce loro, nel momento stesso in cui li si sceglie per essere sottoposti alla caricatura, a quella caricatura. ... Di fatto questa è una forma di comicità che non si può chiamare satira, ma solo sfottò. ... Pensa quanti pretesti satirici si offrirebbero se solo quei comici del "Biberon" volessero prendere in esame il modo in cui questi personaggi gestiscono il potere e lo mantengono, o si decidessero a gettare l'occhio sulle vere magagne di questa gente, le loro violenze più o meno mascherate, le loro arroganze e soprattutto le loro ipocrisie. ...un teatro cabaret capostipite: il Bagaglino, un teatro romano che, già vent'anni fa, si metteva in una bella chiave politica dichiaratamente di estrema destra, destra spudoratamente reazionaria, scopertamente fascista. Nelle pieghe del gruppo del Bagaglino e del suo lavoro c'era sempre la caricatura feroce dell'operaio, del sindacalista, del comunista, dell'uomo di sinistra, e una caricatura bonacciona invece, e ammiccante, accattivante, degli uomini e della cultura al potere
Fo (1990) quotation:
L'ironia fatta sui tic, sulla caricatura dei connotati più o meno grotteschi dei politici presi di mira, dei loro eventuali difetti fisici, della loro particolare pronuncia, dei loro vezzi, del loro modo di vestire, del loro modo di camminare, delle frasi tipiche che vanno ripetendo. ...[lo sfottò è] una chiave buffonesca molto antica, che viene di lontano, quella di giocherellare con gli attributi esteriori e non toccare mai il problema di fondo di una critica seria che è l'analisi messa in grottesco del comportamento, la valutazione ironica della posizione, dell'ideologia del personaggio.
Arroyo, José Luís Blas; Casanova, Mónica Velando (2006), Discurso y sociedad: contribuciones al estudio de la lengua en..., 1, pp. 303–4, ISBN 9788480215381
Morson, Gary Saul (1988), Boundaries of Genre, p. 114, ISBN 9780810108110, second, that parodies can be, as Bakhtin observes, "shallow" as well as "deep" (Problems of Dostoevsky's Poetics, 160), which is to say, directed at superficial as well as fundamental faults of the original. [...] the distinction between shallow and deep [...] [is] helpful in understanding the complex ways in which parodies are used. For instance, shallow parody is sometimes used to pay an author an indirect compliment. The opposite of damning with faint praise, this parody with faint criticism may be designed to show that no more fundamental criticism could be made.
Luttazzi, Daniele (2005), Matrix, IT, archived from the original on December 25, 2005, Dario Fo disse a Satyricon: —La satira vera si vede dalla reazione che suscita.
Luttazzi, Daniele (October 2003), Fracassi, Federica; Guerriero, Jacopo (eds.), "State a casa a fare i compiti" (interview), Nazione Indiana (in Italian), Lo sfottò è reazionario. Non cambia le carte in tavola, anzi, rende simpatica la persona presa di mira. La Russa, oggi, è quel personaggio simpatico, con la voce cavernosa, il doppiatore dei Simpson di cui Fiorello fa l’imitazione. Nessuno ricorda più il La Russa picchiatore fascista. Nessuno ricorda gli atti fascisti e reazionari di questo governo in televisione.
Kremer, S Lillian (2003), Holocaust Literature: Agosín to Lentin, p. 100, ISBN 9780415929837
Lipman, Stephen ‘Steve’ (1991), Laughter in hell: the use of humour during the Holocaust, Northvale, NJ: J Aronson, p. 40
Clark (1991) pp.116–8 quotation:
...religion, politics, and sexuality are the primary stuff of literary satire. Among these sacret targets, matters costive and defecatory play an important part. ... from the earliest times, satirists have utilized scatological and bathroom humor. Aristophanes, always livid and nearly scandalous in his religious, political, and sexual references...
Clark, John R; Motto, Anna Lydia (1973), Satire–that blasted art, p. 20
Clark, John R; Motto, Anna Lydia (1980), "Menippeans & Their Satire: Concerning Monstrous Leamed Old Dogs and Hippocentaurs", Scholia Satyrica, 6 (3/4): 45, [Chapple's book Soviet satire of the twenties]... classifying the very topics his satirists satirized: housing, food, and fuel supplies, poverty, inflation, "hooliganism", public services, religion, stereotypes of nationals (the Englishman, German, &c), &c. Yet the truth of the matter is that no satirist worth his salt (Petronius, Chaucer, Rabelais, Swift, Leskov, Grass) ever avoids man's habits and living standards, or scants those delicate desiderata: religion, politics, and sex.
Ferdie Addis (2012) Qual è il tuo "tallone da killer"? p.20
Hodgart (2009) ch 2 The topics of satire: politics p.33
The most pressing of the problems that face us when we close the book or leave the theatre are ultimately political ones; and so politics is the pre-eminent topic of satire. ...to some degree public affairs vex every man, if he pays taxes, does military service or even objects to the way his neighbour is behaving. There is no escape from politics where more than a dozen people are living together.
There is an essential connection between satire and politics in the widest sense: satire is not only the commonest form of political literature, but, insofar as it tries to influence public behaviours, it is the most political part of all literature.
Satire lies about literary men while they live and eulogy lies about them when they die.
Satire is traditionally the weapon of the powerless against the powerful.
Comedy has to be done en clair. You can't blunt the edge of wit or the point of satire with obscurity. Try to imagine a famous witty saying that is not immediately clear.
The satirist who writes nothing but satire should write but little - or it will seem that his satire springs rather from his own caustic nature than from the sins of the world in which he lives.
Praise undeserved, is satire in disguise.
Satire is tragedy plus time. You give it enough time, the public, the reviewers will allow you to satirize it. Which is rather ridiculous, when you think about it.
Satire doesn't effect change.
P. J. O'Rourke
I only aim at the powerful. When satire is aimed at the powerless, it is not only cruel - it's vulgar.
Rush Limbaugh's pathetic abuse of logic, his absurd pomposity, his relentless self-promotion, his ridiculous ego - now those, friends, are appropriate targets for satire.
Satire is a weapon, and it can be quite cruel.
You can't debate satire. Either you get it or you don't.
It's a great time to be doing political satire when the world is on a knife edge.
When satire is aimed at the powerless, it is not only cruel - it's vulgar.
Status is always ripe for satire, status is always good for comedy.
I started off at the Second City in Chicago... It's an improvisational theater that ostensibly does social and political satire, but when I was there, we generally didn't. We did character work, and we did just the silliest things we could think of. We weren't all that concerned with, you know, changing the world through mime.
I'm a satirist, so I've got boxing gloves on if the person is worthy of satire. But I'm not an assassin. If that ever happens, it's only because something happened during the interview that got me going, and then I had to translate my feelings to the mouth of the character.
I have never knowingly, I swear to God, written satire. The word connotes exaggeration of the foibles of mankind. To me, mankind just has foibles. You don't have to push it!
We never dealt with satire or suggestive material. Although some of our films were broad parodies or burlesques of popular dramatic themes, there was no conscious attempt at being either sarcastic or offensive.
If you're going to give people 20 minutes of news satire, you've also got to give them Tiffani-Amber Thiessen or you're going to have rioting in the streets.
The satirist who writes nothing but satire should write but little - or it will seem that his satire springs rather from his own caustic nature than from the sins of the world in which he lives.
When I started performing, there was no Internet; I didn't really have anything to copy. I kind of had to just make up what I thought burlesque was, based on photographs of Sally Rand or whatever.
Dita Von Teese
The difference between burlesque and the newspapers is that the former never pretended to be performing a public service by exposure.
I. F. Stone
You know what my earliest memories are? Going from one burlesque town to another. My father was in burlesque.
Every one of my products - my lingerie, my perfume, and everything that I do beauty-related with regard to building my burlesque shows - is just me.
Dita Von Teese
The silent film has a lot of meanings. The first part of the film is comic. It represents the burlesque feel of those silent films. But I think that the second part of the film is full of tenderness and emotion.
Me personally, I want to entertain people above all. When you look back at burlesque in history and the real golden age of burlesque, those entertainers were there to entertain, and there wasn't usually some big political message behind what they were doing.
Dita Von Teese
Bip is the romantic and burlesque hero for our time. Bip is a modern-day Don Quixote.
In the early '90s, it was grunge; everybody was fully clothed. Alanis Morissette was one of the biggest artists in the world, never wore makeup, wearing Doc Marten boots, and then the Spice Girls turn up, and suddenly it all looks a bit burlesque; suddenly they're the biggest band in the world.
I don't think there is such a thing as being too raunchy when it comes to the art form of burlesque.
Objectivity is almost a choice you make. As a burlesque performer, I didn't choose to be objectified.
Burlesque girls were alchemists. They were steel-tough performers who were willing to use kitchens as dressing rooms, haul their costume bags through the snow, and go into debt over fake diamonds, all for the five minutes onstage when they were goddesses.
I was performing in this burlesque group, and we would go to dance rehearsals every day. You'd use every part of your body. Even though some of it is slow, it takes a lot of muscle to be able to dip down and come back up.
Burlesque dancing didn't solve all my post-divorce problems, but what it did do was force me to court myself for a little while.
Emily V. Gordon
Some of the pictures I must say every now and then I just think are going to be funny. When it gets that much, you might as well just pull out all the stops and make it more of a burlesque.
The human comedy is always tragic, but since its ingredients are always the same - dupe, fox, straight, like burlesque skits - the repetition through the ages is comedy.
I've always had a love affair with New York City, and I've threatened to get an apartment there one day. But it just made sense for me to set 'Burlesque' on the Sunset Strip in Los Angeles. It's a place I know intimately well and love, and I think there's a great story to be told with L.A.
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2023.03.25 17:21 anonym_gl Searching for an apartment near uOttawa
I’m coming to uOttawa for the fall semester and I’m searching for student appartement. I saw the prices of the university’s residences and I found that very expensive. Can you inform me about residences which don’t exceed 1100$ per month. If you are searching for a roommate for September or you want to rent an appartement, I’m very interested!
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2023.03.25 17:21 GaiaGoddess26 Brand new fan just here to gush about my obsession with Maneskin!
I am obsessed and it happened so fast my head is still spinning!
I normally get into bands and dive in deep and become obsessed and listen to them for 6 months straight and just a few days ago I was still obsessed with my favorite band Muse, I didn't even want to get into any other bands right now. But i was watching an interview with Matt Bellamy and Zane Lowe where they were talking about how good Måneskin was so I thought to myself I should check them out. But it took me a week because I really hate listening to anyone but my current obsession, lol So I said i'll just watch one video...
20 videos later, lol...
I am completely obsessed! I'm scouring the internet for pictures, watching every interview on Youtube, listening to all the albums, finding all the fan groups, researching about the band members, etc. I have not even listened to Muse in 3 days!!! It's safe to say now the Måneskin world is where I'll be living for a while, lol
My favorite song is either Torna a Casa, If Not For You, or I Wanna Be Your Slave.
My favorite member is Thomas, after I saw his 5 minute long looped guitar solo intro to The Loneliest in San Fransisco, my heart swelled!!! He's too adorable and talented (well they're all talented, of course). I love how close the band is, it makes me wish I was in a band!
I'm bummed they're not coming here on this tour, although they will be playing 6 hours away but I can't afford a major trip plus I'm going to be moving this summer and I don't know when yet. I hope they do another swing of the US in the fall/winter!
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2023.03.25 17:20 hydra1280 steven universe fan story: great gem war alternative universe
set up: part 1
near the later stages of the great gem war:
in the rubble of the war-torn earth, things were dire, during the great gem war, as Rose Quartz revealed her true identity as Pink Diamond and set up active defences and opposition against her sister's forces. White diamond pulled out her own combative force as the largely directed force of gems toward earth increased dramatically to encompass the entire empire as Mars, Saturn and all other planets in the solar system were taken into aggressive positions. Though Pink was not able to overtake the realms, the dramatic escalation of power by assuming full control of her colony caused outbursts on the surrounding planets as rebellions and riots using propaganda for freedom of gem kind.
In desperation for the fight for humanity, the revolutionaries turned to alternative sources of soldiers, a peridot who was made in the rush for resources on home world who had defected would end up developing a new type of gem synthesis using corn. As Pink Diamond would use her abilities to create plant soldiers using genetic modification and gem powers to create titanic figures with the incorporation of alien beasts. But most importantly would be humans who would see rapid technological growth due to the crystal gems giving them technological advancements and operating them as foot soldiers in the war due to Pink having matured greatly.
While on the other hand, the Diamonds were in an uproar as Yellow positioned her fleets overhead, planning to bombard Pink's army and pick up the pieces while Blue with her compassionate heart planned to subvert the forces and free Pink from her "delusions". White was the most hazardous, focusing on human population centres as she detonated the human zoo and personally shattered rogue gems on the broadcast to then sprinkle them onto earth as abominations to make examples of them.
300 years later:
The sky breathed black on earth as ash, brimstone and magma moved through the breeze and ground, in the long years the planet had been greatly devastated as biological life now lived underground or in domed cities since the outside had become too toxic. To go out without any sort of life support or filtration systems meant death within seconds, gems were even affected by this bazaar concoction as gems would go through corruption into slimy masses with the lucky ones having some sort of protection that allowed them to solidify their forms more. Though there were safe areas and cleaning projects, these would take hundreds if not thousands of years with current progress covering small regions. But this was better than other planets as they became shattered and broken with it decided to destroy the worlds, rather than let them fall into enemy hands which meant the revolutionaries could create life without reserve due to destroyed ecosystems. But most of the gem forces were of biological nature despite this fact as it was common to see fruit knights or vegetable lords dominate the battlefield with giant cactus and melon beasts floating around crashing into enemy lines. But the human element would not be neglected as the humans had increased their lifespan from 40 to 200 with each and every warrior either being immensely powerful or unreasonably efficient on the battlefield. repaying every human life with 30 gems, though this would be due in large part to the cybernetic and gem enhancements with training from experienced fighters such as Pink Diamonds' most trusted soldier, a pearl.
Eventually, a peace agreement was reached, in turn for providing a great deal of resources to rebuild destroyed planets and ecosystems along with enhancing the worlds and providing them ample resources for settlement. As anticipated the gems had tried to forcefully return Pink Diamond in the negotiations but she had overpowered them and made them sign the treaty in return for ending propaganda and recalling rebels with obedient gems being handed over. Along with all off colours or failed gems being handed over to Pinks' kingdom where they would be under her jurisdiction.
200 years later:
With the aftermath of the gem war over, the earth had greatly recovered, though the scars of war were apparent and marked down in history. In an effort to make a new, Pink abdicated her position in exchange for a council of representatives with each world being self-governed and interconnected with only one portal to the gem empire on an outer colony. The flow of man would continue as before, having all sorts of sensations and crazes such as hip-hop, art and more with things like racial or sexual inequality being squashed by the crystal gems. In this, Pink Diamond would live out her days where no one could recognise her in an outreaching town called beach city since even if people did recognise her they would think her one of Pink Diamonds' admirers who changed their forms into her or a resembling human. (Since the crystal gems' bodies become idolised which focused on size meaning that now women in the modern age were quite tall with male parameters staying the same along with women with it merely being that there are more tall women in the modern era.)
Pink would later find herself in seclusion in a temple at beach city with her best friends, Pearl the poster girl for independence, Garnet the advocate for love and breaking of segregation and Amethyst who became an inspiration in intermingling with humans using her open mind and free spirit. But soon enough the curious eye meat faded out of view as Greg and his charm enthralled Pink, hearing about how other humans had already begun relationships with gems and created hybrid children with interesting but not quite understandable. Until Greg came along, the love that the two shared was great and Pink wanted to leave upon that kindred love with Greg Universe. Before long it had happened, Pink would die, leaving her mark as Greg raised Steven where the temple once was.
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2023.03.25 17:19 Few-Candy-6256 [US][Chernarus][Xbox] Capital State RP
Capital State RP is a city RP based in the Soviet times in the city of Moscow. Be a Red Army Solider to protect and serve the USSR or be a MVD AKA Cop, or be a civilian with a job or be a Criminal of the state and create your own Empire to fight against the Soviets. DISCORD IS A MUST AND REQUIRED!!!!!!!! https://discord.gg/7PwZNdwTcj
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2023.03.25 17:19 KaneVega CWA World Title 2020
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SWIPE FOR FEUD MATCHES 👇🏾👇🏾👇🏾👇🏾 Since the start of the CWA, Baron "The Don" Montag has had his Montag Mafia dominate the new promotion with heir apparent "The One" Ace Moretti taking the wrestling world by storm by being undefeated and winning the first ever Crusade Royal and ending Porter Jordan's first world title run in less than 5 months at only 23. submitted by KaneVega to WrestlingGM [link] [comments]
With intimidation and a new form of wrestling extortion "The Don" Montag has managed to build what could be one of the most legendary factions in wrestling history.
Feuds: Porter Jordan - Defeated by Moretti at Pinnacle (CWA's Wrestlemania), lost again at Mayhem in ladder match
Wade Bracy - CWA original and future world champion in many eyes. Bracy lost a highly contested 2 out 3 falls match to Moretti. The match hinting at a future long term rivalry between the young stars.
Jeff Madlock - Debuting at the end of an Anarchy taping, Madlock made his intentions clear taking out flunky Ken Paragon and enforcer Maverick Cole to challenge the champion leading to a feud that would almost give Moretti his first lost.
Wax - The L.B.L's "Monstar" Wax looked to avenge Porter Jordan and showed potential to be a breakout superstar but came up short in a bloody feud with Moretti.
Alex White - Giving the CWA a major raise in popularity, Alex White left ASE in hopes of regaining world championship status. White got his chance after giving the protected Prince Emil his first lost. "The Don" Montag made sure the title did not leave the Mafia.
Cam Trill - By the end of 2020 another rising CWA original hade been making waves under the rader all year. Trill had been undefeated just as Moretti but had remained silent about going for a championship untill he felt. With the most anticipated match of the year taking place at December's New Years WrestleWar, Trill lost a 60 minute iron man match 5 to 4 to the champion. This match boosting both stars statutes and another potential long term rivalry.
2023.03.25 17:19 YesThatJoshua Invasion of the Body Snatchers (1954) Question
Spoiler Alert: 79-year-old spoilers incoming!
The pods create duplicates of humans, slowly changing shape to be like them before psychically taking on their memories and mannerisms while the original person sleeps. And then... what? It seems like the original human dies (never wakes up or something more violent?) and is replaced by the duplicate.
But at the end of the movie, Becky falls asleep for a moment and is taken over while geographically isolated in a scrubland mine.
Was her mostly-finished pod brought into the mine offscreen? Or is that her original body, but now taken over psychically by the pod?
Before Miles hikes off to find the source of music, Becky's clothes are covered in dirt. When he comes back and she's changed, she's wearing the same dirty clothes as before.
She says "I went to sleep, Miles, and it happened."
He narrates "They're bodies were now hosts harboring an alien form of life."
So... what exactly are the pods doing? Are people being replaced bodily or just psychically?
I mean, the movie does call them "Body Snatchers," which does make it sound like they're exceptionally good at taking the leftovers away. But it seems like Becky's original body was taken over by a pod-mind. Are the pod duplicates just serving an intermediary purpose, like a voodoo doll?
I suppose... wrong answers only?
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2023.03.25 17:19 Highmaul Acid Reflux/GERD or something else?
26, AMAB, 140lbs, 5'9" - no smoking/no drinking/no current prescribed medications.
Family history on my mothers side has a history of digestive issues, and my fathers side has a history of heart problems. Likewise, two of my nieces have been growing up with digestive problems.
TL;DR - constant burping, infrequent upset stomach/upper abdomen discomfort/nausea. Have not seen a doctor yet/been tested for anything.
Hi there, thought I'd come here and seek some input while it's the weekend and whatnot - seemingly as time goes on I've been experiencing some symptoms that I feel like could be related to acid reflux/GERD or similar. Growing up I have been (mostly) careless of what I eat other than the fact of being a vegetarian; nothing has necessarily bothered me ranging from spicy foods to dairy and so on.
So in more recent times I feel like maybe there's a slight chance I could be the next one in the family tree to have their own stomach problems. The first time I suspected this was back in Fall of last year, went for a typical yearly check-up and told my doctor about how in a rare occasion I'd feel indigestion/slight heartburn of sorts, they suggested i could take Omeprazole and I decided to carry on without that and honestly up until recently I didn't have any problems.
More in the now, or starting about a month ago or so I've noticed I burp a lot. It can be after breakfast, later in the night after a small snack, or maybe even after just a cup of tea. The way these come out don't feel like your typical burp either, hard to say if there's an "acidy" or sour taste though. Sometimes my stomach feels a tad upset, other times it feels like it's a discomfort in my upper ab area. Does not seem like this is better or worse if I sleep on my side versus my back.
I'm at this point tracking what I eat each day (& beginning to experiment with less acid-y foods), as well as keep a log of any sort of symptoms plus seeing if simple OTC options like Tums or Pepcid can help, but I'm a bit on the edge of trying Omeprazole because that's more of a prescription thing and I am personally not sure if it's something I should try for my symptoms. Hoping to see my doctor when they can get me in (and doing so has been a hassle lately due to how busy the clinic is these days) and/or be referred to a gastroenterologist if that's needed. Again, figured I'd come here and ask for some opinions first.
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to AskDocs [link] [comments]
2023.03.25 17:19 JustHereForTheGuns [WTS] I Am Once Again Offering FREE Sight Installation Services, Upper Receiver Assemblies, Gas Block Barrel Dimpling, Pin And Welds, A2 FSB Barrel Cuts, Gas Block Pinning, and General Help
Have a sight that requires installation and don't want to booger it up, deal with ornery sights, or just don't have the time? Do you have an AR upper parts kit that needs to be put together, but don't have the tools? Send it my way! I offer free sight installation, complete upper receiver assemblies/barrel installs, gas block barrel dimpling, pin and welds, A2 FSB drilling, reaming and installs; low-pro gas block pinning, and barrel inspections. If your request falls outside of these, just ask. I may still be able to help. Regularly, shipping here and on return costs about $8.70 each way, so right under $18 for your slide to be back in your hands. Uppers are generally about $15-$20 dollars each way. Just stick a piece of paper that contains your phone number, return address, the contents and value of your package, and whether you'd like insurance for the way back. I will then have it back within the day. When you PM/IM me, please keep one thread going for the duration of your parts' stay with me. Ideally put in a descriptive subject line, too. http://imgur.com/a/ZA2xsrV Picture of my current setup. Most everything pictured has either been donated, upgraded, or otherwise purchased with the generous support of this community. Thanks for reading, and I look forward to helping all that need it.
Some FAQs THE BASICS
Q: How much does X service cost?
A: It's free.
Q: Is it really free?
A: Yes, all you have to do is pay for shipping here and on return. If you can't even cover that, we can discuss a solution.
A: Yes. If you ask me again, it'll be $47,000.
Q: Do I need to include anything in the box?
A: Yes. Put in a piece of paper listing your phone number, return address, estimated value of contents, and package contents in the box. If you don't, your item will be delayed until you contact me.
Q: How long do you usually take?
A: 1 day if you follow instructions, longer if you don't.
Q: Do I need to include return postage/pay for shipping in advance?
A: No, and no. I've sent everyone's items back and just been repaid for postage so far.
Q: Do you accept tips/ How can I pay you back?
A: Tips are always appreciated. That being said, I'd like to ask that if you find yourself in a situation where you can help someone, even in some minor way, that you please do. Doesn't have to be gun related. Just be good to one another.
Q: Okay, but how can I ACTUALLY pay you back?
A: I would prefer to use CashApp, Venmo, or Google Pay.
Q: if I'm local, can I drop in?
A: Yes. I live in Lacey, WA. If you're local, you can drop in while I work. SERVICES OFFERED
Q: Can you cut a virgin barrel to accept A2 FSB taper pins?
A: Yes. Both the barrel and FSB have to be new/uncut.
Q: Can you install a pre-drilled FSB?
Q: Can you match my new FSB to my pre-cut barrel's taper pin channels?
Q: If I have sights already on there and you have to swap them, is it still free?
A: Yes. Most slides I've gotten in have had sights on. It's only a minimal amount of extra work.
Q: Can you mill my slide for an optic?
A: No. Hit up u/Wage92
Q: Can you thread an unthreaded barrel?
A: No. Contact D. Wilson or Class 3 Machining.
Q: Can you cut down and rethread a barrel?
A: No. Contact D. Wilson or Class 3 Machining.
Q: Do you swap muzzle devices/handguards/barrel nuts/gas blocks, etc.?
A: Yes, yes, yes, and yes. If it's on an upper I can put it on or take it off. No matter what it is, I do it for free.
Q: Can you remove a previously pinned and welded muzzle device?
A: Yes, but I can make no guarantee that the barrel underneath is not trashed. Depending on how it was done previously, there may not be much support left in that part of the barrel, or the removal process may shred your threads. Pin and welds really should be treated as what they are: permanent.
Q: Can we see an example of your pin and welds?
A: Sure. http://imgur.com/a/yzXC86Y
Here's some more recent ones, too. https://imgur.com/a/QhoVgNF
Q: What types of pistols have you done so far?
A: Glocks, Sigs, M&Ps, CZs, Springfield XDs, Walthers, H&Ks, 1911s, Jericho, Colts, Rugers, Desert Eagles. Always looking to try others.
Q: How do you ensure zero?
A: Mechanical zero is ensured by the use of calipers to measure the distance between each side of the sight and the nearest available flat. Varies from gun to gun. All that being said, as with all things ballistic, you might still have to do some minor adjustments at the range. MISCELLANEOUS
Q: How long is this available?
A: Unless otherwise announced, indefinitely.
Q: Why do you do this?
A: Long story short, felt guilty getting paid every two weeks when quarantine first started and people weren't anywhere near as fortunate as me. Decided to help out in some small way. Kept it going ever since.
Q: Can I get flaired for this transaction?
submitted by JustHereForTheGuns
to GunAccessoriesForSale [link] [comments]
2023.03.25 17:19 QueerEspeon Help a noob find the best laptop
I am a noob player who has been gaming for years. I have mainly played Age of Empires II, Empire Earth, and Total War. I have mostly played the old versions that are not demanding. Recently, I've been dipping my toes into more games like Dawn of Man, Cities Skylines, Sims 4, Transport Inc, and more. I recently got Anno 1800 but was so sad to realize it does not run on my current laptop. I have a 2020 HP Spectre x360. Below are the stats:
Processor Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-1065G7 CPU @ 1.30GHz 1.50 GHz Installed RAM 16.0 GB (15.7 GB usable) System type 64-bit operating system, x64-based processor Graphics: Intel (R) Iris (R) Plus Graphics (not sure if this is the correct stat)
I honestly have not been satisfied with this laptop from the moment I got it and I honestly am looking for a replacement. I would want a sturdy gaming laptop where I don't have to worry a lot about whether games can run on the laptop as that would be the most demanding thing my laptop would go through. I have a preference for smaller screens and lighter laptops with sleek designs (one of the reasons why I went with my current laptop) and good battery life. The perfect price would be in the ballpark of $1,550 (USD) but I know I may be asking for a lot in that price so I'm happy to hear about different options (like fewer features but a better price or these exact features but higher price).
I really appreciate your help :)
submitted by QueerEspeon
to GamingLaptops [link] [comments]
2023.03.25 17:19 cybertrackstop Public warning: Cyberstalker Paul Frank Forino Jr. aka Paul Forino
If you are reading this, it is likely that you have concerns about the individual mentioned in this article. We have published this information to raise awareness of the potential threat posed by Paul Frank Forino Jr., who also goes by the names Paul Forino, Paul Sorino, Paul Jr. Forino, and Paul F. Forino. Our aim is to prevent instances of stalking, harassment, and obsession by this individual, who may be an active computer hacker with a predilection for targeting young men and sometimes women.
Paul Forino seems to have a history of harassing young men online, with some instances dating back over the years. Public records indicate that he has been brought to court twice in the past five years for stalking and harassment of two separate individuals.
Our investigation has revealed that he has worked for or owned several gay porn or e-commerce companies, such as OMGTTYL LLC, STUDIO 459 LLC, TopAlphaMen.com, anaturalflame.com (A Natural Flame), and BluePeakSoap, which he has used to leverage access to his victims. He has also been involved in computer and network security, possibly using his skills to spy on and harass his targets from afar.
Our team began tracking Paul Forino after receiving multiple anonymous tips warning us that he posed a danger to the public and the gay community. Over time, we have gathered substantial evidence that confirms his predatory behavior towards young men.
Paul Forino uses gifts and money to groom his victims, offering to perform sexual acts in return. However, despite claiming to be wealthy, he filed for bankruptcy in 2020, which raises significant red flags. He is a highly manipulative and obsessive individual who creates multiple online accounts to stalk his victims and send unsolicited sexual pictures.
Our investigation has revealed that Paul Forino may be engaging in phishing, data scraping, and other malicious online activities to steal data from people and businesses in order to try and control them. He is a public nuisance and a danger to unsuspecting individuals who may fall prey to his tactics.
If you are concerned about Paul Forino harassing or stalking you, we strongly encourage you to document and report any instances of his behavior to your local law enforcement or a reputable private investigator. He has been known to frequent locations such as Fort Lauderdale, FL, Miami, FL, Asheville, NC, Belvidere, NJ, and Seaside Park, NJ, and has had addresses in various locations.
We have only provided you with surface data only, we have more significant private information that we simply cannot share within this platform.
If you have been a victim of Paul Forino's harassment, we would like to hear from you. Your testimony may be valuable in helping to stop his predatory behavior.
In conclusion, Paul Forino has no right to use his network and security industry skills to exploit young men regardless of the relationship he believes to have with them.
It is our job to make the public aware of his behavior, and we hope that our efforts will prevent others from falling victim to his tactics.
Note: Public sources show that the number (954)-270-3162 is owned by Mario Cobbs of Opa-Locka, FL but in fact, this number is not associated with Mario Cobbs. The number is owned and operated by Paul Forino and was linked to one of Paul’s older businesses from a Google business knowledge panel called “A Natural Flame” which was later removed.
We know this because our team has thoroughly investigated and infiltrated communications from Paul using this exact number. The question remains, what is this guys problem?
Moreover, our investigation has led us to conclude with certainty and without any doubt that Paul Forino is, in fact, stalking, harassing, and actively engaging in malicious hacking tactics to exploit young men. He is the owner of the cell number (954)-270-3162 and possibly several other cell numbers/landlines linked to him as well.
Public Sources: https://radaris.com/~Paul-Forino/1639179664 https://unicourt.com/case/pc-bk5-paul-f-forino-and-michelle-a-forino-1166795 http://search.sunbiz.org/Inquiry/CorporationSearch/SearchResults/OfficerRegisteredAgentName/Forino%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20Paul/Page1 https://unicourt.com/case/fl-br-keanu-gomes-petitioner-vs-paul-forino-respondent-1177007 https://unicourt.com/case/fl-br-carlos-bolla-petitioner-vs-paul-forino-respondent-1629198
A Natural Flame (954) 270-3162 https://g.co/kgs/bMFY2B
Public Profiles: https://twitter.com/steven98395657?s=21&t=RHd7qDmRe-BD6gE7-xSL6A https://www.instagram.com/paul1475 https://www.instagram.com/paul_1475 https://www.instagram.com/devils_goodboy_007 https://www.instagram.com/devilsgoodboy https://www.instagram.com/devils_goodboy https://www.instagram.com/bluepeaksoap https://www.instagram.com/topalphamen https://foursquare.com/use2220183 https://www.tiktok.com/@devilsgoodboy?_t=8aacGCSKrmM&_r=1 https://www.instagram.com/paulsorino
submitted by cybertrackstop
to u/cybertrackstop [link] [comments]
2023.03.25 17:18 N-formyl-methionine How different technology in the roman empire would be from it's birth to the end of the western part?
When we talk about roman inventions or engineering it's seems like it was always there, concrete, road, pipe. So what would be different from like the first century vs fourth century. What would people find different in their quality of life? I can already add Galen since he lived during the imperial era. but for the rest like astrology, chemistry or whatever it was called etc...
submitted by N-formyl-methionine
to AskHistorians [link] [comments]
2023.03.25 17:18 ThySaggy IBC begins to fracture after the NSPQR detained IBC emporer over a month ago
The IBC's young emporer had failed to settle terms with the Tribune of the NSPQR at a meeting protected by the Simonistan.
The emporer of the IBC declared war on the much smaller NSPQR and returned to his ship.
Once the ship was out of view of the Simonistan force, the NSPQR's GAIUS JULIUS CEASAR battleship had surprise attacked the IBC's CONSTANTINOPLE.
The CONSTANTINOPLE was the solo ship that brought the IBC emporer to the meeting.
The IBC emporer was captured by the NSPQR forces and is currently being held under strict surveillance in Nova Roma.
This surprise capturing of the IBC emporer lead to consequences more devastating for the IBC than anticipated.
The IBC emporer inherited the throne young and had to solidify his rule through force against rather nobility opposition.
Once the IBC emporer was detained by the NSPQR, the IBC had a powerful power vacuum which lead to the inner fracturing of the Empire.
Multiple high-gravitas nobles had attempted to succeed the throne, with vast wealth pumped into securing portions of the army to turn o other nobles.
The IBC had stopped their expansion into the Kalmar Solar System due to the troubles at home base, leaving the NSPQR at peace, as very few of the noble elite wish to bring the young emporer back.
The fractured IBC gives time to the Suevi and NSPQR on how to deal with the possible return of the IBC once a new ruler is successfully installed.
submitted by ThySaggy
to AsparianFactions [link] [comments]
2023.03.25 17:17 nigels_angel How can I help my partner trust me again after I cheated...
I've been in a relationship with the most amazing man for 6 years, he's the love of my life and I am completely lost without him.
Well, I f*cked up.... Some back story, he works away during the winters but usually has a few weeks at home. This year he only had 10 days at home between mid November and beginning of April. It gets pretty lonely, but I've gotten used to it. An old friend came into town and we met up for some drinks. He invited me to go "wheeling" (driving around in the snow on forestry roads) with some other mutual friends and, as I was lonely, I thought "hey that'll be fun". I ended up drinking too much during the day and needed to spend the night at the old friends house. More drinks ensued, and next thing I knew I was in the old friends bed. After committing an action that absolutely destroyed me, knowing what it would do to my relationship with the man of my dreams...
Knowing it was an isolated incident that would never have happened if I wasn't in a blackout state of drunkness, I kept it to myself for about a month. But I couldn't take it anymore - the guilt was eating me alive. I couldn't sleep, I couldn't eat, I was shaking all the time, grey hairs growing in and healthy hairs falling out. And then I got scared of what would happen after I confessed my collosal f*ck up. So I started looking at housing and jobs in another town. And then I needed to tell him.... But he's still away at work.
So I FaceTimed him and explained what happened and where I was.
And now... Now I can't function. I've hurt him so deeply. I need to fix this. I need to save our relationship.
If you've ever taken someone back after something like this, what made you decide to keep trying?
And, if you've ever been taken back after being in a position like mine, what did you do to ensure A) another chance and B) helping your partner heal?
Please, people of Reddit. Help me ❤️🩹
I had an isolated, drunken, out of character cheating incident and need to save my relationship. Help?!
submitted by nigels_angel
to relationships [link] [comments]
2023.03.25 17:17 No-Knowledge-6015 Took acid weekly for 6 months, here’s what I learned
I use psychedelics for mostly therapy (emotional processing and release) typically a full 200ug blot and at the highest would be 300ug. I love learning about myself and traveling through my memories and different realities.
Some of my trip intentions: - Heart Opening - Grounding - Forgiveness - Acceptance - Delayed Gratification - Release
The weekly trips have evidently kept my energy very OPEN. So open that I seem to be more sensitive with picking up energies and being more protective of mine. I love more openly and I am the most affectionate I’ve ever been in my life. All of my toxic maladaptive behavioral patterns are becoming more visible with each trip. I am an abuse survivor and had a major episode 9 years back where I had to take antipsychotics for sleep and couldn’t safely fall asleep due to my trauma response and for the first time since then have been sleeping without my medication. I’ve learned how to naturally fall asleep through my trips.
I’ve had several group trips where I’ve experienced telepathy where I can hear other peoples thoughts and vice versa, and communicated with them through the trip (meaning no verbal conversation, all telepathic)
My most recent discovery is learning how to tap into other peoples energy which is something I’m curious if other people are capable of inducing this type of what I call “witchcraft”. It’s crazy how I’ve only recently tried to find the energy of people closest to me and how the bodily sensation and temperature changes as you enter a new energetic field. Is this legit or am I just tripping?
I’m curious to learning more about what realms, practices and other dimensions of consciousness we can tap into with psychedelics. I’m about to go easy on LSD and explore shrooms on a similar frequency to build my spirituality.
Eager to hear similar stories with how psychedelics changed their lives and programming. 🌈
submitted by No-Knowledge-6015
to Psychonaut [link] [comments]
2023.03.25 17:16 Dismal-Jellyfish Inflation Alert! 'certain mutual funds hold large amounts of relatively illiquid corporate bonds but provide investors the option to redeem shares on a daily basis. This liquidity mismatch makes these funds more vulnerable to runs which could force rapid liquidation of bonds at firesale prices'
| || | submitted by Dismal-Jellyfish to Superstonk [link] [comments]
Good morning Superstonk, I hope everyone is having a great weekend!
Reading FEDS Notes this morning and I saw this: From-Whom-to-Whom Relationships in the Financial Accounts of the United States: A New Methodology and Some Early Results
What's interesting about this? https://www.federalreserve.gov/econres/notes/feds-notes/from-whom-to-whom-relationships-in-the-financial-accounts-of-the-united-states-20230324.html
Understanding how much of a sector's financing comes from another sector provides valuable insight into potential sources of financial stability risk.
- Certain mutual funds hold large amounts of relatively illiquid corporate bonds but provide their investors the option to redeem shares on a daily basis.
- This liquidity mismatch makes these funds more vulnerable to runs, which could force the rapid liquidation of bonds at firesale prices and potentially disrupt the functioning of corporate bond markets.
- U.S. mutual funds' holdings of corporate bonds grew rapidly in recent years before falling in the latest quarters on a mark-to-market basis, and stood at about $1.2 trillion (nominal U.S. dollars) in 2022:Q4, which is about 11 percent of total U.S. corporate bonds issued.
In general, fixed-income mutual funds typically sustain losses when interest rates rise, and they have experienced negative returns and sizable outflows most of this year.
These funds remain susceptible to sharp increases in rates because their interest rate risk, as measured by the duration of their bond holdings, has reached its highest level since at least 2005.
What happened this week? https://www.npr.org/2023/03/22/1165274305/the-fed-raises-interest-rates-again-despite-the-stress-hitting-the-banking-system https://www.frbdiscountwindow.org/
Remember, back in December 2020 their median estimate for 2023 the federal funds rate was 0.1%: https://preview.redd.it/fdlr9b30swpa1.png?width=1145&format=png&auto=webp&s=ed6817a7f448f4200806d63afb3f37c1b189f397
FOMC Dot Plot
The FOMC (Federal Open Market Committee) dot plot, alternatively called the Fed’s dot plot, is a chart that summarizes the FOMC’s outlook for the federal funds rate. It is published quarterly and watched closely by investors and economists for indications on the future trajectory of the federal funds rate. In the Fed dot plots, we can see guidance was low through 2021.
Then came the pivot to combat inflation and Fed Funds rate went from .1 to 5% in the course of a year after folks trusted the Fed's busted guidance...
- Certain mutual funds hold large amounts of relatively illiquid corporate bonds but provide their investors the option to redeem shares on a daily basis.
- $100 billion in corporate bonds called out as potentially impacted.
- This liquidity mismatch makes these funds more vulnerable to runs, which could force the rapid liquidation of bonds at firesale prices and potentially disrupt the functioning of corporate bond markets.
- In general, fixed-income mutual funds typically sustain losses when interest rates rise
- These funds remain susceptible to sharp increases in rates because their interest rate risk
2023.03.25 17:16 ecw324 Billy goat Lawn Overseeder
Hello everyone. While trying to plan out my upcoming season, I noticed the overseed I did last fall did not have as much success as I had hoped (I had a technical issue with my sprinkler). So I have been thinking of other ways to overseed this upcoming fall and stumbled across the billygoat lawn overseeder again. Has any used this before and how well did it work for you? This would be the one that says it’s a combo of detaching and slicing to bury the seed for better growth. Just looking to rent it (they are expensive to purchase for a homeowner use only). Have you had success with it or is it just a waste of money? Thanks and I hope you all have a successful lawn season.
submitted by ecw324
to lawncare [link] [comments]
2023.03.25 17:16 Captainvtuc I found 13 industrial fuses and dont know what to do with them
I was exploring this abandoned industrial estate, and found this small concrete hut with a bunch of electrical stuff in there, it was all destroyed and falling apart but i found scattered around there on the floor 13 SIBA industrial fuses with plastic stickers on the end like if they had never been used. heres the specific one: FUSE SIBA 40A 10/24kV (Art No. 3000613.40) . i dont know what to do with them. any help? can i sell them?
submitted by Captainvtuc
to AskElectricians [link] [comments]
2023.03.25 17:16 eslamx Relative imports outside of src/ are not supported.
I have assets(images) folder which I moved it oustisd the src folder to public folder. then this error is arised, and tried many to change the path but couldn't handle it. so what should I do? ``Module not found
: You attempted to import "../../public/assets/crew/background-crew-desktop.jpg" which falls outside of the project src/ directory. Relative imports outside of src/ are not supported.``
This is the repo of project if anyone like to look into the code: The Code
submitted by eslamx